Do you think Art History is a good degree?
April 19, 2012 6:35 AM   Subscribe

I am thinking about majoring in Art History, and would like to know from others that have obtained a bachelors in this area if it was worth it to them?

I am planning on majoring in art history, and would like to know from others with this particular degree if they found it to be worth it after graduating. What are the pros and cons of this major? How has this major helped you or hindered you? I could major in art administration, but I am more of a humanities minded person. I believe having a degree will open doors that would other wise be closed to me in the future if I wish to pursue different opportunities.
But anything that would be beneficial in the long run would be appreciated. Should I minor in a chosen area as well? I plan on attending graduate school as well. Thanks.
posted by Lillian7 to Education (42 answers total) 4 users marked this as a favorite
The most obvious con is that you'll have a tough time finding a job that pays well in your field. More likely you'll end up getting a job outside your field and then what's the point?

If you have to take out a lot of loans to afford college, liberal arts degrees like this are a very bad investment.
posted by imagineerit at 6:40 AM on April 19, 2012

While it is true that having a degree, in general, puts you in a better position than not having one, if you are looking for a degree that will provide employment opportunities, Art History probably ain't it. Ultimately, though, it is your graduate degree that will determine your employability. The best thing you can do for your career while you are in school, however, is to get as much actual experience possible in whatever field you want to work in. Internships, work study jobs, externships, etc. A job applicant with four years of experience and no formal education is infinitely more desirable than one with four years of education and no real-world experience.
posted by Rock Steady at 6:43 AM on April 19, 2012

No no no no no no no no no!!!!!!

Holy hell, NO!!!!!

Sorry. I have a BA in Art History with a minor in museum studies. It has gotten me exactly nothing. In fact, I applied to be a cashier at a museum store once, and was told that all the people hired had to at least have an MFA in Art History or fine arts.

It's a great thing to minor in. I loved all my courses, but if there's a less useful Bachelor's Degree I could have gotten, I don't know of it.

posted by xingcat at 6:47 AM on April 19, 2012 [12 favorites]

You don't say what kind of careers you want to go into after graduation, nor what type of program you want to pursue in graduate school.

Decide first what you want to be when you grow up, then pick a major based on that. Don't do it the other way around.
posted by Tooty McTootsalot at 6:50 AM on April 19, 2012

Should I minor in a chosen area as well?

On a general basis, I have really never heard of a good reason to not minor in something, unless your undergraduate major is incredibly time-intensive.

A minor is just concentrating a significant portion of your mandatory electives into a single field so that you can take advanced classes in it without having to officially declare it as a major. The other option is to just take a lot more 101- and 201-level elective classes than you would otherwise. Again, unless the school you're going to has an incredibly hardcore Art History major, taking upper-tier electives is probably not going to detract from your ability to do well in your major courses.
posted by griphus at 6:51 AM on April 19, 2012

Definitely somewhere between "bad major" and "colossally bad major," unless you're rich or your family is rich and you stand to have a sizable inheritance. The chance of you getting any job that utilizes an art history degree is vanishingly small, even with/especially with a related graduate degree. If you're a techy person and intend to do a graduate degree in MIT's Media Lab, you will have some opportunities. But degrees in art history/arts administration are paths to penury.

My SO was an Ivy League Art History BA and greatly regrets wasting her time in college (though, of course, she had a wonderful time and learned a great deal; she knows lots about art and is wonderful to talk to about art-related subjects).

Seriously, in this economy, if you are going to leave with loans, don't do an art history degree under any circumstances.
posted by Admiral Haddock at 6:54 AM on April 19, 2012 [1 favorite]

A very old friend of mine got an art history degree from a reputable school. She has been working at a (albeit swanky) make-up counter for about ten years now. She likes her work, but it's not the sort of thing you need a BA for. You need serious, serious connections to get any kind of job related to an art history degree.

I vote minor. I minored in art, and loved it.
posted by smirkette at 6:56 AM on April 19, 2012

Actually, there's a third option, and that's to double-major. If you really, really want to study Art History beyond what a minor can provide, I sincerely suggest you double-major in Art History and something more practical.
posted by griphus at 7:06 AM on April 19, 2012 [1 favorite]

More likely you'll end up getting a job outside your field and then what's the point?

That you had a worthwhile experience studying something interesting in college! I don't think my friend who's a dermatologist regrets having majored in history.

If you have dreams of being a museum curator, I would put those aside, unless somehow you get admitted to a Ph.D. program in Art History at Harvard and make friends with a wealthy, well-connected mentor in the arts world.

I would say this depends on what your plans are and how competent (and well-respected) your college is when it comes to sending its graduates into the white collar recruiting pipeline, regardless of what they major in.

The economy being what it is, I would tread very cautiously.
posted by deanc at 7:09 AM on April 19, 2012

Similar to griphus' comment above, I know someone who did an Art History major AND a business major. They graduated and were applying to work at Sotheby's. The only other Art History graduates I know are currently teachers so perhaps that's another type of training you might consider to supplement your degree.
posted by cranberrymonger at 7:09 AM on April 19, 2012

My wife has an art history degree. She's 43. Her work history is as follows:

Apartment Manager
Section 8 housing programs director (couple different agencies)
And now she's a stay-at-home mom.
posted by thatguyjeff at 7:15 AM on April 19, 2012

I remember an art historian coming to one of my art history classes and speaking about her career, and it seemed like the first half hour was "and then I had an internship here, and then I had an internship there, and then I had another internship." It's been so long that the exact details are fuzzy, but it still made a serious impression on me that she'd spent so many years after graduating scrambling for internships.

I majored in art, and although I don't regret spending my college years doing something I enjoyed, if I had to do it over again I'd probably choose a more practical major.
posted by Metroid Baby at 7:16 AM on April 19, 2012

MFA in Sculpture, BFA in Sculpture, Minor in Art History here. Honestly, I would major in Arts Administration. That will actually get you a job. You could double major in Art History, but really, no one will care about that other than art-minded people. I minored in Art History because I wanted to be more informed about where my work is placed in Art History. Arts Admin is certainly humanities based; it's the arts. Sure, you're more on the technical end of art things like galleries and educational aspects, but that's where the money is. Try to think of a scenario where someone actually needs an Art History question answered that isn't in the art field. There isn't one.

I majored in art, and although I don't regret spending my college years doing something I enjoyed, if I had to do it over again I'd probably choose a more practical major.

As an art major, I echo this sentiment. Majoring in Art History is fun if you like things like provenance and obscure details about the work and the artist, but it is absolutely not practical at all.
posted by ThaBombShelterSmith at 7:26 AM on April 19, 2012 [1 favorite]

This is more about graduate school in art history. I was recently at a workshop for graduate students and postdocs on finding nonacademic jobs. At my table were two art history Ph.D. students who were commiserating about the job market - apparently in the last hiring cycle there had only been two art history faculty positions available in the entire country. There are certainly a great deal more art history Ph.D.'s produced in any given year. One of the students said she would continue at her current (unspecified) job at a museum, which did not require an art history graduate degree and she did not expect any kind of raise or promotion from the degree. The other student said she figured she didn't really need a job, as her family and/or husband would probably support her.
posted by research monkey at 7:33 AM on April 19, 2012

I'm going to go against the grain a bit here, OP. You don't say that you have a specific career goal in mind; if you do, my advice might not really apply to you. However most people applying to college don't really know what they want to do. College is for exploring various fields and getting a general education. So in my opinion, you should major in something you enjoy and not worry about a clear-cut professional path. Very few people I know actually are working in whatever they majored in (I'm 32)! There are some exceptions, but as others have mentioned, most people don't specialize until graduate school.

Art history is a fascinating subject that will teach you a lot of transferable skills: critical thinking, writing, reading, research, interpreting stuff, looking at historical/political/social context, understanding points of view of a variety of kinds of people, articulating your thoughts, making a cohesive and coherent argument, doing presentations, etc etc etc. HOWEVER, if you have a very specific goal of being the curator of the Met, or whatever, it's not that that is an impossible dream necessarily, but you may want to expand your idea of what kinds of work would be fulfilling to you. And the time and place to learn about various fields is DURING college, not before.

Here's an interesting blog post about someone who was a theater major and then had a business career; he talks about the many ways his seemingly unrelated major served his career.

I also noticed your previous question about language & literature. I may be projecting or misinterpreting, but I get the sense you would be happiest pursuing a well-rounded degree and then working out the career aspect a bit later. Also remember you don't have to commit to a major immediately. You can test the waters a bit and see what you want to do.

If the only reason you're going to school is to get a job, any job, the most practical job there is, you don't need graduate school. You'd be better off learning a trade.
posted by pupstocks at 7:36 AM on April 19, 2012 [2 favorites]

I majored in art history as an undergrad, do not come from a wealthy family, and have done fine. It is not a practical degree in the sense that, say, a BSN would be: you can't take your diploma and get a job where they pay you to do art history. However, I'd say it's on equal footing with any humanities and most social sciences undergraduate majors.

I think the big question, and one I wish I'd thought about, is: what types of work/study positions, internships, mentoring relationships, and other opportunities will you encounter as a XYZ major?

Those opportunities are what will make the difference between your BA in art history (or other humanities/social sciences undergrad degree) being something that can propel you into a career or something that just qualifies you for entry-level office work. A psychology major can't take her degree and get hired as a therapist, but experience working in a psych lab might get her a research coordinator position. A sociology major might be able to use his undergrad research experience to get some type of entry-level public policy work. An art history major might have a work/study position or internship with a museum, and use that experience to get a post-college job in a museum doing, say, educational outreach or fundraising/development.

I wish I'd been a bit more strategic in how I spent my time while not in my classes. I couldn't afford to take unpaid internships, but I could have been more creative (and aggressive) in seeking work/study jobs that related to my career ambitions. At the time, I wanted to do something along the lines of a graduate degree in museum studies (though my interests changed eventually). I took a job as a research assistant for a faculty member in the art history department. I wish I'd asked her to help connect me with networking contacts in the university's art museum, and other museums in the area. I wish I'd aggressively looked for ways to get involved in museum work. I wish I'd thought about my career as more than "something I'll figure out after I graduate."

I also wish I'd been more strategic in developing skills that could make me more competitive on the job market, such as web design or grant writing.

One final thought: I do have to question whether a BA in arts administration would actually be very practical. What are the advantages--are there special internships you would have access to, job placement options, or other concrete benefits? Particularly if you're planning to go to grad school, I'm just wondering if there's really a strong advantage to doing the arts administration undergrad program, or if an art history program would allow you to study things you're interested in while pursuing internships and jobs that would teach you much the same content as the arts administration program. I could be on the wrong track, and the undergrad program in arts administration could be a really fantastic foundation for your career goals. I just think you need to be asking these questions. And don't make the mistake of assuming that just because a program is more "practical" that they will do your networking, internship-hunting, and other critical career-advancing steps for you.

I was fine, by the way, even though I wasn't super strategic with my undergrad studies and extracurriculars. I ended up using other networking contacts and finding an entry-level research position with a consulting firm. My art history degree didn't get me the job, but no one at that company looked at my major and thought it was a reason not to hire me.
posted by Meg_Murry at 7:39 AM on April 19, 2012 [3 favorites]

I'd say do it if you can as a means to hone your writing and critical thinking skills. My alma mater, Marlboro College, is a school where writing underlies every subject from science to dance. So shop around and see if you can use art history to learn wider skills.
posted by princelyfox at 7:54 AM on April 19, 2012 [1 favorite]

Nthing the HECK NO sentiment. I have a BA in Anthropology. While i learned a ton of fascinating stuff, in relation to my career it's been worthless. IMHO, liberal arts major are pointless unless you plan on pursuing grad school, especially in today's economy. Study something that has a clear professional application.
posted by gnutron at 7:54 AM on April 19, 2012

Ps. I build art now and wish I'd majored in it instead of the classics, but I thought the negative comments were too down on the idea.
posted by princelyfox at 7:57 AM on April 19, 2012

I'm of the view that if a certain degree is not directly required for your chosen career, it doesn't really matter what your humanities B.A. is in. You learn to read and write, and if it's a topic genuinely of interest to you, the work comes much easier.

Moving forward is the issue. Grad school in that same topic, or something else entirely?

I say either double major in art admin or art history, or major in art admin and minor in art history. Chances are that admin part will be the practical side you'll lean on later. The interest of studying art history will be what carries you through to finishing your degree.
posted by Capt. Renault at 8:02 AM on April 19, 2012 [1 favorite]

I'm not as down on the idea as some are. I had a liberal arts major as an undergrad and while it hasn't directly gotten me a job (and I'm definitely not in that field at all) it hasn't hurt me at all either. If anything having taken a highly non-traditional path into my discipline has helped me stand out, provides something to talk about, and I rely every day on the reading/writing/research skills from the liberal arts.

As long as you aren't going deep into debt to do this, I don't see a big downside. An advantage to a purely liberal arts degree (as compared to a pre professional degree like arts administration) is that you are assumed to be (by necessity) flexible, adaptable, and informed, so you can easily step sideways into other career paths, even crazy ones.
posted by Forktine at 8:09 AM on April 19, 2012 [1 favorite]

Unformed, not informed. Damn phone.
posted by Forktine at 8:10 AM on April 19, 2012

I have a BA with a major in fine art and a minor in art history (essentially; I went to Hampshire College, where we don't do majors/minors) and I now have a career as an editor. Unless you want to become a doctor or computer programmer or something else requiring heavy schooling, I don't think it really matters what you major in in undergrad. Your internships and networking will matter. With art history, you will learn a ton about doing research, organizing your thoughts, and writing. Those skills are very much in demand in a ton of different fields.

And, of course, if you decide you want to become the director of the Met, you'd obviously need to go on to grad school.
posted by chowflap at 8:11 AM on April 19, 2012

I'm two credits away from completing an undergraduate degree in a humanities based program. I have changed my major five times during my undergraduate career. The major that you choose does not matter as long as you get a degree, have experience, network, and know how to market your skills to employers.

I would recommend getting a degree in Art Administration because it's the best of both worlds. It can open more doors for you and will be easier to market in comparison to an Art History degree.

With that being said, universities are not vocational schools. People constantly find jobs outside of the area that they majored in all the time.

Find something that you love and stick to it.

For what it's worth, the 'real life' skills and the growing up that I have done during my undergrad are much more valuable to me than what I learned (and then forgot) from my undergraduate courses.
posted by livinglearning at 8:25 AM on April 19, 2012

I didn't do Art History, but I do have a BFA. I would say this to anyone at all getting a degree in anything impractical.

I really really recommend not doing it. You have your entire life to persue the incredibly interesting topic of art history. Minor in it, spend your electives on it, whatever. While you are young and have more brain space to focus on prepairing for the rest of your career. If you DON'T know what you want to do, that's cool- just pick something that can be applied to a lot of different industries- administraition, business- whatever.

More importantly- even if you do decide to go with Art History- get out into the workforce as an intern in as many places as you can. Not only can you get a feel for how each industry works- but you build a great big base of contacts that can vouche for you, give you professional tips, and most importantly- TELL YOU WHO IS HIRING.

My first three jobs out of school were due to my internship as an assistant to a program director. I now work in my field (art) but it was an incredibly hard road, and I really think I would have gotten here at the same time in my life regarless. i just could have saved myself a mountain of debt and spent the last ten years making a shit ton more money while I waited for my in to the industry.
posted by Blisterlips at 8:28 AM on April 19, 2012

I believe having a degree will open doors that would other wise be closed to me in the future if I wish to pursue different opportunities.

What doors do you expect will be opened? What kind of opportunities? What are your plans/expectations going forward? What is your professional background? What are you planning to do in school other than study art history?

I plan on attending graduate school as well.

Graduate school in what?

There's not enough information here.

I suspect that whether you major in Art History or not will not matter. If you are focused on getting internships and building up a professional resume in consulting, administration, or similar work while hitting up the career fairs and on-campus interviews pretty hard, you will get a job in those fields. If you do not, you will end up desperately searching for some various menial jobs and unpaid internships along with a lot of other bachelor's degree holders with little-to-no experience.
posted by deanc at 8:33 AM on April 19, 2012 [1 favorite]

Former art historian here. I still study the stuff on my own for fun, but am no longer pursuing a career in the field.

I think art history is a very worthwhile subject to study, but you do need to have your career options lined up very clearly in your mind. Do A LOT of independent research about what you want to do after school and think hard about if/how efficiently an art history degree will get you there. In my art history department at a well-regarded art school, a little joke made the rounds.

Q: What's the difference between a PhD in art history and a large pizza?
A: A large pizza can feed a family of four.

It's important to note that I heard this joke from a faculty member, not a student. We laugh so we don't cry, yes? Anyway, art history is a joy to study and I don't regret all my years of school. If you have another means of financial support and do not need to worry about supporting yourself after school, I say go for it. However, if you need to make a stable living, I would suggest a double major or a good plan for how you will monetize your education after graduation day. I have had good jobs in the field, and still have had to do some backtracking in order to reposition myself in another field that will give me more financial freedom and career options.

P.S. I advise against going into debt to finance your studies.
posted by anonnymoose at 8:43 AM on April 19, 2012

I believe having a degree will open doors that would other wise be closed to me in the future if I wish to pursue different opportunities.

Oh, it will to be sure. But an Art History degree won't. It's just about the stereotypical useless degree, having replaced English, which can actually be useful if your job involves writing even a little bit.

You want to study art history, either do it as part of a double major or take it up as a hobby. It's great stuff, but it's a luxury. Unless you're in a position of not having to worry about how you're going to feed yourself ten years from now--or even next week--this would be a phenomenally bad move.
posted by valkyryn at 8:51 AM on April 19, 2012 [1 favorite]

I double majored in Art History and Classical Civilization. I wound up going to grad school to get my MLIS and be a librarian.

How on earth am I surviving (even...thriving???) with these three useless degrees???

Anyway, if you're gonna do Art History, you need a plan. If you have a secondary major in something a bit more marketable (not Classical Civilization) or a grad school plan...go for it. One interesting thought that my Art History Advisor had was for me to double-major in Art History and Chemistry, with the intent of doing art restoration.
posted by Elly Vortex at 10:07 AM on April 19, 2012

@ Elly Vortex-So are you currently employed as a librarian?
posted by Lillian7 at 10:16 AM on April 19, 2012

Thanks everyone for your advice and ideas. I will have to consider them. I would like to work on the business side of arts organizations, museums, or libraries. I am also into graphic design/web design. For gaduate school I was thinking MLIS or creative art therapy.
posted by Lillian7 at 10:27 AM on April 19, 2012

BA in English with a minor in Art History, then an MA at a reasonably good but not top-of-the-tree program. I'm currently in my eleventh year of employment as a registrar in a museum.

I feel like I got really lucky, in some cases. By the time I realized that becoming a professor probably wasn't in the cards for me for various reasons, I had been lured over to the museum side of things and was working at the university museum, getting a ton of valuable experience. Thankfully I didn't rack up an enormous amount of student loans because I had an assistantship.

There's not a lot you can do with just a BA in Art History that is related to Art History/museum work itself. Everyone I know currently working in the field has at least an MA, and if they went on to be high-level curators or tenure track professorships, they all got their PhD. If you want to continue in the field, do your best to keep your student loans as low as possible. I'm in my late thirties and still have about a year left to pay on them - and I barely had any.
posted by PussKillian at 10:31 AM on April 19, 2012

If you are interested in the business side you might be better off majoring in business or finance and minoring in art history or museum studies. As for the MLIS, you will find a ton of AskMe questions (and answers) on whether pursuing an MLIS is worth the time and expense.
posted by needled at 10:39 AM on April 19, 2012

What does the "business side of of arts organizations, museums, or libraries" mean to you? Fundraising? Facilities management? Marketing/PR? HR? I'm not sure why you would need an MLIS or art therapy graduate degree to work on the business side of a museum.

Arts funding is down, and these jobs are hard to get; there is a lot of competition, and people who have the jobs are staying put. There's a lot of entrenchment, and a lot of un- and under-employment.

You'll get a lot more security and options if you were to major in business or accounting or some other general purpose business major with an Arts Administration minor. The minor (plus all the internships you're applying for) will show arts employers that you are committed, but the general business degree will allow you to apply for work with any firm.
posted by Admiral Haddock at 11:05 AM on April 19, 2012

My friend double-majored in Art History and Journalism in the 90s. She's had various stints as a reporter for an independent alternative magazine and PR for an insurance company. Her current and longest lasting job is as Communications and Marketing Director for a small art museum in our city. She's made it through several cuts in the organization but that's only increased her work load while her pay remains the same. She loves the museum, loves the art, loves the patrons...she doesn't necessarily love her job. She says for sure that she wouldn't have this job except for impeccable timing and knowing lots of people in the arts scene in our city.
posted by cooker girl at 11:10 AM on April 19, 2012

I have a BA in Art History. After graduation, I worked in a coffee shop for a couple years, temped for a couple years, and then went back to school for graphic design. I've been working as a web designer for more than a decade.

I honestly think it gave me a good grounding for what I'm doing, because I have a lot of historical knowledge of trends/design/colors/etc. I loved the major because it allowed me to study art & history & politics & religion & other stuff all at once. But it certainly didn't teach me the hands-on skills I need for my day-to-day job duties.

Will I recommend that my children study these things, too? Yes.

Will I strongly suggest that they MAJOR in something more practical? Hell yes.
posted by belladonna at 12:16 PM on April 19, 2012 [3 favorites]

i double majored in art history and folklore at an ivy league school with good programs in both. at the time, i also questioned whether it was "practical" to get my degrees so i also explored marketing and communications classes. i loved my art history and folklore classes and didn't care one way or another—or really disliked—the classes in the more "practical" majors. after graduation i got jobs in advertising (in account management) and then publishing (as a producer). several years later i got a BFA in graphic design. i think my art history and folklore definitely helped me along the way. in my design career, from my teachers to my present supervisor, i have always been told that my work reflects intelligent thought and research and i believe that is due to my majors, which taught me how to research extensively and think critically. it also gave me a historical basis and context for graphic design bc the history of graphic design is tied into the (more modern) history of art as well as into the cultural history of folklore. i have been a successful graphic designer since i graduated from art school with my BFA 11 years ago.
posted by violetk at 12:25 PM on April 19, 2012

I am with pupstock and meg_murray all the way, and I am saying this as someone who graduated with a graduate journalism degree at age 50.

This is my AskMe answer
that has received the second most favorites of any I've posted, and they still pop up from time to time. Despite the vast body of answers on the green cautioning against certain courses of study, those favorites speak to me.

Focus on a liberal education, which art history certainly is, for undergraduate study. When it's time for grad school you can hone your interests more to fit career needs, interests, and realities. Or, heck, you could go to trade school and learn welding -- a marketable skill and an art medium.

You will have a difficult time finding an art history-related job, there is no doubt. But without a humanities degree, you will certainly not get certain jobs when they are available.

You might like GMU's digital history grad program. Or digital journalism grad school -- one of my grad school buds is an arts producer at The Grey Lady.
posted by jgirl at 1:26 PM on April 19, 2012

I was a design major, but I remember one student in a few of my classes who was majoring in Classics. He explained to me once that his education was extremely important to him, and that Classics would give him a strong background in general thinking, but that it was not necessarily related to his career (he didn't want to go into academia). violetk's approach sounds good. If you must major in art history, take several other practical classes (whether engineering, programming, business, hatmaking, etc.). If you don't have to major in art history, major in something more practical, but do take plenty of art history classes. More practical employers view background knowledge in areas such as these as very positive things, but you do also need the practical background.
posted by taltalim at 1:29 PM on April 19, 2012 [1 favorite]

Art History was one of my undergrad majors. I translated the architecture and urban history courses into a totally different field (GIS). Really though, it hasn't really been worth it. I remember the professor who looked horrified when I said I was thinking of grad school in art history. Frankly, this is something you can learn on your own time. I would just take a course or two, or do no more than minor.
posted by shinyshiny at 4:42 PM on April 19, 2012

1. An art major will improve your ability to write and communicate. That can be an asset when you go to find a job. But I doubt it will pay your mortgage and your student loans. I learned my best writing and research skills from my art history classes. I minored in art and I went on to work in journalism.

2.You don't say if you've done any university level art courses...but they aren't all 'fun times in the studio.' You won't be making a ton of art you love. You have to deal with arbitrary opinions from professors. They grade you on their opinions. You'll spend a lot of time working on art basic art principal exercises. These can be boring and uninspiring. The art history classes can be pretty dull too.You write 50 page papers about some tiny minutiae in art concepts. And you may care less about it!

If you have a more practical backup plan. Do that, get an art minor and make art a hobby.
Finally if you love it. Do it.

disclaimer: As I said, I just got a minor. I also got a comm degree. Which has been a bit more practical for me. YMMV.
posted by hot_monster at 7:04 PM on April 19, 2012

Also, previously and previously.
posted by jgirl at 7:23 PM on April 19, 2012

« Older How do I help my friend fight their depression on...   |   Would you eat this thing? Newer »
This thread is closed to new comments.