Among them, the food is in a great measure composed of oat and pease-meal, prepared for use in a variety of ways. The first of these, when gradually mixed with water and a little salt, and boiled in a pot over the fire constitutes porridge; and the other forms which this may, in common with the pease-meal, be put to, are brose, scones, or bannocks, and cakes. The brose is formed by a quantity of meal with a little salt, which is put into a dish, and while one person stirs it another, or perhaps the same person, pours boiling water upon it, till the mess becomes of an ordinary consistence. This and the porridge are eaten only while warm, and are used, often in amazing quantities, with milk or beer. The scones or bannocks, and cakes, are formed by the same kind of meal, kneaded with water and a little salt, and toasted over or before the fire. These are used cold as a substitute for loaf bread.
Homegrown yeast skimmed from beer or salvaged from an unwashed kneading trough lightened the final product, as did the incorporation of air into the dough through vigorous kneading and fermentation of standing dough, or the judicious use of fire-ash as a chemical leavener.