Do you do rights clearance work in the music industry (or know someone who does)? If so, can you satisfy my curiosity about how much it might be expected to cost to license rights in the four scenarios described inside?
First and foremost, 1) this is just for idle curiosity as a music lover, and not for any kind of reliance by me, and 2) I am aware that, as negotiated contracts, the cost for the license will be whatever the parties agree upon, so there is not going to be one prescribed rate (subject to any ASCAP/BMI requirements, if relevant).
The four contexts I'm curious about are:
1) The big hits--popular music sampled in popular music (example: the extensive use of the Tom Tom Club's Genius of Love
in Mariah Carey's Fantasy
--both of which were huge hits, but take any number of examples, I'm Coming Out/Mo Money, Mo Problems, etc.; this seems like it would be the most well-defined marketplace)
2) music other than popular music sampled in popular music (example: extensive
use of John Barry's Black Hole Theme
in the Beta Band's It's Not Too Beautiful
; again, there are lots of examples, but it seems like a less-defined marketplace than pop music sampled for pop music--and the length of this sample seems notable)
3) audio other than music sampled in popular music (example: Albert Finney in The Dresser
sampled in the closing seconds of the Manic Street Preachers' PCP
; again, tons of this, but this was a particularly random example to frame the question--I only remember this movie because my mother worked on it)
4) music (and I'll assume popular music) "quoted" in other popular music, but not sampled (example: Salt-n-Pepa's Push It
quoted in The Twang's Push the Ghosts
, both in the bass line and the lyrics)
Again, I realize that the cost in each case is going to be a negotiated amount, but I'm curious even just at the general magnitude of the payments that might be involved. For group 1), we're talking huge hits--what does that add up to? $100,000? $500,000? More? Group 2) represents music that is less likely to be sampled; is it a buyer's market? Also, in the case I mentioned, the Beta Band are indie darlings, but not huge names like Carey--but the sample was so extensive (and presumably Disney would be involved, as the studio behind the film). Group 3) isn't even music; is there really paid licensing, or just permission (and presumably from both the studio and Finney?). And Group 4) isn't mechanical, it's a new cut (and the Salt-n-Pepa quotes and samples from other works, of course).
Lots of examples of each group, and lots of other interesting sampling war stories (like the Verve being forced to assign 100% of their royalties from Bittersweet Symphony to the Stones, or the KLF and Whitney Houston, etc.).
But here, I'm just looking for a ballpark on the amounts that might be involved in each of the four categories above.